Canterbury Tales
King Arthur Legends
Paradise Lost

(first trimester: weeks two through six)

Instructor: Jaimie Crawford

Anglo Saxon-Renaissance Notes
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This unit will use the oldest, most personal form of writing, the letter, to approach Beowulf, Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, and Malory's Arthurian Legends. We will also look at some more modern letters including Romantic poet, John Keats's letter to Fanny Brawne and a letter from a Holocaust survivor. Letters can be reflective, written to oneself as a means of catharsis. They are often narrative, written to tell a true story or fictional one. Always expressive, they communicate our emotions, whether outrage, love, approval, or shame. Letters can be a means of seeking revenge, exposing wrongdoing or wrong thinking, or they can be the means of a request ranging from a small favor to the proposal of marriage. Regardless of their nature, they offer an important method of insight into their authors' minds and souls.
  • Time Allotment: Five Weeks
  • Texts: Norton's English Literature, H&B's Reading for Writers, Orgel's Vocab List
  • Reading:
    Week Two: Beowulf (N.pp.18-64)
    “Freshman Writing” (RFW p. 3)
    ; Assign.1
    Week Three: Prologue to Canterbury Tales (N. pp. 65-89)
    “Letter to Fanny Brawne” (RFW p. 24)
    ; Assign. 2
    Week Four: Malory's King Arthur Legends (N. p.232-252)
    “Letter” (RFW p. 89)
    ; Assign. 3
    Week Five: Excerpts from Milton's Paradise Lost (books 1&4)
    Online Essay on Paradise Lost ; Assign. 4
    Week Six: Test on Unit; AP Essay; Reading Comp.
    “Letter from a Concentration Camp” (RFW p. 304)
    ; Assign. 5
  • Vocab Requirement: Please use at least five words from the vocabulary specified in your Orgel List for each writing assignment. In Assignment 1, use and underline five words chosen from 1-25; in Assignment 2, use and underline five words from 26-50, etc.
  • Writing Assignments:

*Due Fridays: Assignment 1 is due Friday of Week One, etc.

*Writing Prerequisites:
a. clear thesis (read “The Thesis” by Sheridan Baker RFW p. 142)
b. logical organization (read “How to Write Clearly” RFW p. 142;

“WritingSuccessful Paragraphs“RFW p.234)
c. correct grammar (see Strunk and White Online)
d. sound sentence structure (see Strunk and White Online)
e. interest (read “How to Write Narration” RFW p. 270

“How to Write a Description” RFW p. 300)

*Essay Grading: AP rubric will be used whenever applicable.

  • Relating AP Essays: 1993 Marriage Proposal, 1996 Lady Montagu, 1998 Coke
  • Evaluation: 30%: AP Essays in Class; 30%: Writing Assignments; 20% Unit Test 10% Quizzes and Reading Comprehension; 10% Attitude and Participation


Assignment 1: “How to Say Nothing in 500 Words”

Write a letter to me summarizing, exemplifying, and critiquing Paul Robert's advice. You may wish to give your own example of a paragraph that “says nothing” and explain to me how you would improve it using Robert's pointers. Please make sure to summarize all of his points (as succinctly as possible) in your letter. Vocab 1-25

Assignment 2: “Modern Epic” (Eg. Joe vs. Calculus 101)
(AP teacher Robert Simola designed this assignment; email:

You have just read Beowulf, your first “epic”--in other words: a long, narrative poem pitting evil versus good. Now, you get to write your own (much shorter), a minimum of 100 lines, maximum 300. Number each 10 lines at the side. Entertain me using the guidelines below. Vocab 26-50

  • The epic must be done on a word processor or typed and must be double spaced. *SEE THE TOP OF Norton p. 23 for style.
  • At lease half of your lines must alliterate across the caesura.
  • Eg.: “A great tribe's treasures. Truly from thee” “Peers of my people: they have passed from this life.”
  • Use at least one example of the following literary devices: werglid (see Norton p. 19); synecdoche, metonymy, litotes, and “grim irony”(see “Old English Poetry” Norton p.3-5).
  • All normal rules of punctuation apply with the sole exception that each new line will begin with a capital letter. Use plenty of enjambment.
  • Each line will have four stressed syllables. Each one should be marked with a stress mark over the beginning of the accented syllable. Eg: u'sual tod'ay beg'in comm'encement res'pond d'esert dess'ert
  • Epic conventions: epic hero, a conflict or quest, worthy opponent, epic battle; begin in medias res: attention getter at the beginning.
  • At least three allusions will be included and marked:
  • Biblical allusion (BA) classical allusion (CA) literary allusion (LA)
Assignment 3: “A la Chaucer: Character Description

Addressing a friend, describe--in Chaucer style (heroic couplets of rhyming iambic pentameter)--a “character” you met this summer. Use at least three of the following literary techniques: hyperbole, irony, personification, and litotes. Your letter should set out to amuse the recipient--so utilize intelligent humor; remember, Chaucer satirizes popular “personalities” of his day. Vocab 51-75.

Assignment 4: “Letter of Advice to the King”

Using Mallory's Morte D'Arthur (Norton, pp.234-252), write a letter of advice to a character who is in a moment of crisis--a point where advice could be beneficial to him or her. In writing this letter, you may be yourself or adopt another persona, perhaps another one of the other characters in the work. Vocab 76-100

Assignment 5: “Narrate a Personal Experience”

Hillesum letter response. Write a response to me about an experience that has had a strong impact on you. Like Hillesum, convey the nature of your response rather that stating it; in other words, show--don't tell. Your reader should be able to “feel” the impact of the experience on you. Vocab 101-125


“Paradise Lost:” A Revival of the Spirit

by Saif Patel

The Oxford English Dictionary defines “cosmos” as “the world or universe as an ordered and harmonious system,” from the Greek, “kosmos,” referring to an ordered and/or ornamental thing. Though Pythagoras is credited with first using this term to describe the Universe, probably since he is also the one most commonly cited for ideas of harmony and the Musica Mundana, cosmos is generally a contrast to “chaos”—“the first state of the universe.” In explaining the theology and cosmology of Paradise Lost, Milton writes, “the heavens and earth/ Rose out of Chaos,” describing the move from the formless mass to the ordered whole. (I:9-10) As much as this delineates the structure of the world, however, its culmination seems to appear in the Spirit, as Milton has conceived it—the free, reasoning, integrated Consciousness. Though many have found a hero in the English epic from its dramatis personae—from Adam to Satan to God/Son himself—the most encompassing heroism seems that of Milton himself, as a manifestation of this most supreme of creations: the wholesome mind.

An instance in which Milton's views on the sovereignty of the Spirit appear in some of the conversations of the Arch Fiend himself with his fellows—which is quite ironic, considering that the story is an extrapolation upon Christian Scripture. One of Satan's “compeers” says, during a discussion after their exile from Heaven:

Too well I see and rue the dire event That, with sad overthrow and foul defeat, Hath lost us Heaven, and all this mighty host In horrible destruction laid thus low, As far as Gods and heavenly Essences Can perish: for the mind and spirit remains Invincible, and vigour soon returns,Though all our glory extinct, and happy state Here swallowed up in endless misery (I:135-140).

The invincibility of “the mind and spirit” is something which even the foes of God understand. Though the fallen angels corrupt their “heavenly Essences” with disobedience and revolt, they still have a keen understanding of the powers of perception, of personal reaction to one's environment—“for neither do the Spirits damned/ Lose all their virtue” (2:482-483). Satan boldly speaks to his fellows, asking:

What though the field be lost? All is not lost—the unconquerable will . . And courage never to submit or yield (I:105-108).

Like a true hero, Satan refers to conquest and courage, a response to the tyranny he and his cohorts have received from the hand of God. It is this attitude—of adventurous righteousness—which many cite as sufficient to show the fallen Archangel to be the hero of the work. However, working within the confines of the Biblical account, Milton could not reasonably—even if he wished—display Satan as the outright protagonist and epic hero. Therefore, it can only be his qualities of trust in the Spirit, in his own Consciousness as a fortress against the harms surrounding him, that can represent the truly heroic aspect. Satan is a deeply solipsistic character, well aware of the world and his situation in it. Though he becomes quite fatalistic at times and denies possibilities of recovery from his downfall, essentially, he knows that the loss of Heaven as a place is always permanent:

Infernal world! and thou, profoundest Hell, Receive thy new possessor—one who brings A mind not to be changed by place or time. The mind is its own place, and in itself Can make a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of Heaven. What matter where, if I be still the same. . . Here at least/ We shall be free . . . we may reign secure; and, in my choice, To reign is worth ambition, though in Hell: Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven. (I:251-263)

Whatever the reason for their revolt, when Satan and his armies are defeated by the Son, they lose their aspiration, revert to the disintegrated empty air from which they were made: “Exhausted, spiritless, afflicted, fallen” (6:852). In contrast, though Adam and Eve also fall like the Archangel, the difference between Satan and Man is their different choices in the application of their autonomy and spiritual sovereignty, especially after acting against God. Milton explains in his argument for Book X:

Adam more and more perceiving his fall'n condition heavily bewailes, rejects the condolement of Eve; she persists and at length appeases him: then to evade the Curse likely to fall on thir Ofspring, proposes to Adam violent wayes, which he approves not, but conceiving better hope, puts her in mind of the late Promise made them.

The dividing line between Man and Satan is demonstrated in Milton's summary with his juxtaposition of the proposal of “violent wayes” with “better hope . . . in mind of the late Promise made them.” Instead of desperate, destructive means, like Satan and his minions, Adam and Eve are thus able to remain hopeful and humble.

Adam even compares himself to the fallen Archangel, calling himself “miserable/ Beyond all past example and future;/ To Satan only like both crime and doom” (X:820-822). However, the pivotal difference comes later, when the actual consideration of possible choices—freedom—relents to create in Man hope, as opposed to Satan, who remains in “desperate revenge.” An important concept here is that of Predestination, with which Milton himself vehemently disagreed, a strong proponent of free will and its acknowledgment. One of the devils in Pandemonium, Belial, describes Satan's justifications for rebellion: “we are decreed,/ Reserved, and destined to eternal woe” (II:160-161). But God charges this notion with sophistry, saying that Foreknowledge had no influence on their fault . . .

So without least impulse or shadow of fate, Or aught by me immutably foreseen, They trespass, authors to themselves in all. . . I form'd them free . . . Their nature . . ordain'd Their freedom: they themselves ordain'd their fall (III:118-128).

Satan later becomes conscious of his freedom, cursing himself who “Chose freely what [he] now so justly rues,” but he cannot take this further to repentance and pardon, for which “there [is] no place/ Left . . .but by submission” (X:70, 79-81). This he cannot embrace because of his “disdain [for God] and dread of shame/ Among the Spirits beneath” (X:82-83). All of this is due to the utter perplexity and discord of Satan's situation; Belial sums this up in a bitter paradox: “our final hope/ Is flat despair” (II:142-143).

The difference between Satan and Man emerges in the unfolding of the plot. Instead of taking Satan's view of utter despair and want of death and eternal unconsciousness, Adam and Eve decide to take a submissive place in God's plan. Diametrically opposed to Satan's vengeful schemes to seek war of “the offended Deity,” Man seeks Peace—submitting to the Almighty because he is almighty, hoping for “The Spirit of God, promised alike and given/ To all believers” (XII:519-520). Repentance and supplication are things which Satan—in his desperation—could never accomplish. Though the Arch Fiend was strong of Spirit, it was crushed in his attempts to act against Divine Will, destroyed by the “Spirit and Might” given to the Son by God himself.

Whether or not we take a “side” in determining the true victor(s)—Satan and his army in their spiritual “martyrdom” or Adam & Eve in their submission or the Son in his military conquest—Milton's insistence on the inner state as the final determinant of one's position is apparent throughout. Though Satan loses the battle, he is inwardly convinced of his own inability to do otherwise in the face of such extreme circumstances as his. Additionally, though Adam & Eve know that Paradise is lost as a place, their hope is to reach it as a state of mind, to reside there in Spirit. And the Son—though obviously the champion of the battle—was decreed to be victorious by the Almighty, and did not necessarily experience the sort of spiritual change or adventure like the other characters.

This ambiguity by Milton—of not making the hero of his work apparent—is too pervasive to have been unintentional. Rather, it seems that Milton wishes to share his own “heroism” in composing such an epic to his culture—both English and Christian—by taking the reader on a trip through the Consciousness of each of his constructed characters, exploring the different facets of freedom and responsibility. In fact, in his role as narrator, Milton says to the Son:

Thee I re-visit now with bolder wing, Escap'd the Stygian pool, though long detain'd In that obscure sojourn, while in my flight Through utter and through middle darkness borne . . . I sung of Chaos and eternal Night; Taught by the heavenly Muse to venture down The dark descent, and up to re-ascend (3:13-20).

Milton describes his allegorical trek through the heavens and the earth—an “obscure sojourn” quite similar to that of Aeneas or Odysseus or Achilles. Though he is blinded physically, Milton explains—as narrator—that he, like other blind prophets, is granted other boons to recompense for his loss: with the year . . . Seasons return; but not to me returns Day . . . So much the rather thou, celestial Light, Shine inward, and the mind through all her powers Irradiate; there plant eyes . . . that I may see and tell Of things invisible to mortal sight. (3:40-55) . It is this “celestial Light” which allows Milton to see things which others cannot, which allows him to be like “Thamyris . . . Maeonides . . . Tiresias, and Phineus” (3:35-36).

Though many arguments and counter-arguments can be made as to who of the figures in Paradise Lost is its hero, as a whole, it is the Spirit, the inward wholesomeness, intellectual autonomy, and strength of character of the individual which appears as the most wide-ranging “epic virtue” in the work, displayed by many of the characters. Essentially, in this piece, Milton takes the entire concept of an epic and transforms it into an engaging experience, one which is not at all an attempt at flattery and sycophantic pandering to his own culture and beliefs, but rather, one which takes the reader's own Spirit to task. Centuries before Milton, Thomas Aquinas wrote in his Summa Theologica: “In the very gift of sanctifying grace, it is the Holy Spirit whom one possesses, and who dwells in man.” Milton's epic awakens anyone who participates in this mental voyage from whatever depths of gloom he may reside, transforming the shapeless darkness therein into the integrated Consciousness, the illuminated Spirit, which formed the Son, but lives in us all:

Hail, holy Light, offspring of Heaven firstborn . . . Before the Heavens thou wert . . . Won from the void and formless infinite (3:1-12).


Notes on the History of England:


rock-bound, rain-drenched,
rolling hills, rivers, ponds
To the East: the North Sea
To the West: the Norwegiean Sea
English Channel-South
20 miles to France
800 miles South to North
No place in England is more than
100 miles from the sea


1. CELTS (1000BC)
2. ROMANS led by Julius Caesar, later Claudius (55-54BC)
-made camps(castrums-”chester”) and roads-some still in use today
3. SAXONS- (in 600 AD conquered the Romans)
-warriors: angles, saxons, jutes from Denmark
- worshipped Tyr-god of war, carried axes, spears, shields
4. KING ALFRED (871-899)-fought against the Danes
(900-994 AL's son Ed and grandson Aethelstan and Edgar nephew of Aeth. (1014-35) Danish kings etc...
5. KING EDWARD(1035)
6. KING HAROLD(1053)


life is hard and grim
money,war are valued
tribal center=meadhall
king=sometimes of royal line, sometimes just the strongest man
we have few written records
scops, gleemen passed on information by song
witan=king's counselors lived in meadhall with him
women, children slaves lived in huts around meadhall
warring is top priority-be ready to die for king
werglid=primary justice system:
a reimbursement of money or property to the kinsmen of the murdered man
Irish and Roman attempt to convert Saxons to Christianity


Gothic architecture
Influence on English language by French
scholastic philosophers -schoolmen-wrote in Latin on topics of literature
CHAUCER = chausser (shoe maker) wrote Troilus & Criseyde, Canterbury Tales 1386
Sir Thomas Malory=Arthurian Legends - Morte D'Artur 1470
EVERYMAN - morality plays 1500
ERASMUS- Praise of Folly 1509
Utopia- Thomas More 1516
-begins in 1066 with Battle of Hastings
The NORMANS invade
1066, William of Normandy defeats Saxons at Sussex and is crowned king
Saxon were almost all slaughtered
Norman barons take over Saxon thanes, French is spoken in Eng
Feudal system, primogeniture
1086 Dome'sDay Book- first survey of property/yields
William has 3 sons: Robert(gets Norm.) WIlliam (gets Eng.) dies then youngest HENRY is king of Eng. (1100-1135)
Henry II vs. Becket over church rights Becket is murdered in Canterbury (Chaucer)
HenryII has 2 sons: Richard (lionhearted) and John(who signs the Magna Charta- 1215 giving rights to barons, limiting exec.power)
John's son= HenryIII (liar, feeble)
Henry III's opposition formed “The Parliament”
Henry's strong crusader son=Edward I
Model Parliament of 1295
Edward II (weaker son)
Edward III (black prince) fights France
100 years War began 1339-1443 Eng. vs. French (Fr. won)
BLACK PLAGUE kills 1/3 of Eng. 1/4 of world
first king deposed by Parliament
peasant uprising 1381

Queen Elizabeth I

James I

Henry IV 1399
Henry V -warrior king-occupied France for a while
but then Joan of Arc led French troups to victory
1485 War of the Roses: Henry VI vs. Richard, George, and Edward
Henry V-1422
Edward IV-1433 YORK-1433
Edward V-1433
Henry VI -1461
Richard- 1483
Richard III-1485 TUDOR-1485
Henry VII-1485
Caxton's Printing Press - 1476
Henry VIII-1509 handsome, Catholic, 6 wives,
Cath. of Aragon, Anne Boylen,Jane Seymour
Act of Supremecy-Henry becomes head -
Anglican Church- used Protestant Reformation
Edward VI-1547
Mary I-1533 Spanish, Cath.
Elizabeth I- 1538 -1603 Powerful, never married, Span. Armada's defeat
James I-1603 STUART